References by Chapter

The following are references and recommended resources for the chapters in this book.

Chapter 1

Brown, B. (2014) The power of vulnerability. TedTalk. Retrieved from

“Culture and communication.” (2002). Encyclopedia of Communication and Information. The Gale Group. Retrieved from

Hauser, Christine (2019). Main just banned Native American mascots. It’s a movement that’s inching forward. New York Times.

Mitru, G., Millrood, D. L., & Mateika, J. H. (2002). The impact of sleep on learning and behavior in Adolescents. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 704-726.

Nicotera, A.M. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Eds: Stephen W. Littlejohn andKaren A. Foss. SAGE. Doi: 10.4135/9781412959384

“Public speaking anxiety.” (2015). University of Wisconsin-Stout. Retrieved from

Tompkins, Paula S. (2009). Practicing Communication Ethics. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Chapter 3

Bartlett, J. (comp.). (1919). Familiar quotations (10th ed.). Rev. and enl. by Nathan Haskell Dole. Little, Brown, and Company. Retrieved from website:

Beebe, S.A., & Beebe, S. J. (2000). Public speaking: An audience centered approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Clevenger, T. J. (1959). A synthesis of experimental research in stage fright. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 45, 135–159.

Savitsky, K., & Gilovich, T. (2003). The illusion of transparency and the alleviation of speech anxiety. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 601–625.

Carnegie, D. (1955). Public speaking and influencing men in business. New York, NY: American Book Stratford Press, Inc.

McCroskey, J. C. (2001). An introduction to rhetorical communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 40.

Metcalfe, S. (1994). Building a speech. New York, NY: The Harcourt Press.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2004). Why zebras don’t get ulcers (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt.

Wallechinsky, D., Wallace, I., & Wallace, A. (1977). The people’s almanac presents the book of lists. New York, NY: Morrow.

Boyd, J. H., Rae, D. S., Thompson, J. W., Burns, B. J., Bourdon, K., Locke, B. Z., & Regier, D. A. (1990). Phobia: Prevalence and risk factors. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 25(6), 314–323.

Witt, P. L., Brown, K. C., Roberts, J. B., Weisel, J., Sawyer, C., & Behnke, R. (2006, March). Somatic anxiety patterns before, during and after giving a public speech. Southern Communication Journal, 71, 87–100.

Chapter 4

Bem, D. J. (1970). Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. New York, NY: Brooks Cole.

Bostrom, R. N. & Bryant, C. L. (1980). Factors in the retention of information presented orally: The role of short-term listening. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 44(2), 137-145.

Foulke, E. (1968), Listening comprehension as a function of word rate. Journal of Communication, 18(3), 198–206.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.

McLeod, S. (2014). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

Mueller, P. A. & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014, June 4). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/095679761452458

Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology 2(2), 175-220.

Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York: W. W. Norton & Company

Chapter 5

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author, p. 349.

Associated Press. (2011, May 5). Conn. shekel shellacking. New York Post.

Freedom of speech. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s dictionary of law. Retrieved from website:

McCroskey, J. C., Wrench, J. S., & Richmond, V. P. (2003). Principles of public speaking. Indianapolis, IN: The College Network.

National Archives and Records Administration. (2011). Bill of rights transcription. Retrieved from

Shiffrin, S. H. (1999). Dissent, injustice and the meanings of America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Supreme Court of the United States. (2007). Syllabus: Morse et al. v. Frederick. No. 06–278. Argued March 19, 2007–Decided June 25, 2007. Retrieved from

U.S Courts. (2021). What Does Free Speech Mean?. United States Courts. Retrieved from

Tilley, E. (2005). The ethics pyramid: Making ethics unavoidable in the public relations process. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 20, 305–320.

Chapter 6

Bureau of the Census. (2011). About the American community survey. Retrieved from

Bureau of the Census. (2011). Demographic surveys. Retrieved from

Coopman, S. J., & Lull, J. (2009). Public speaking: The evolving art. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage.

Grice, G. L., & Skinner, J. F. (2009). Mastering public speaking: The handbook (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Lalwani, A. K. (2009, August). The distinct influence of cognitive busyness and need for closure on cultural differences in socially desirable responding. Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 305–316. Retrieved from

Logan, J. R., and Zhang, C. (2010). Global neighborhoods: New pathways to diversity and separation. American Journal of Sociology, 115, 1069–1109.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (2008, February). Summary of key findings. In U.S. religious landscape survey. Retrieved from

Russell, J. (1991). Inventing the flat earth. History Today, 41(8), 13–19.

Samovar, L. A., & McDaniel, E. R. (2007). Public speaking in a multicultural society. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.

Shahid, A. (2011, June 24). Rick Perry’s Jose Cuervo joke at Latino convention bombs in Texas, as governor mulls 2012 GOP bid. New York Daily News. Retrieved from bombs_in_texas_as_governor_mul.html

Sprague, J., Stuart, D., & Bodary, D. (2010). The speaker’s handbook (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage.

Tannen, D. (1994, December 11). The talk of the sandbox: How Johnny and Suzy’s playground chatter prepares them for life at the office. The Washington Post. Retrieved from

Vavra, T. G. (2009, June 14). The truth about truth in survey research. Retrieved from

Chapter 7

Del Valle, G. (2019). The high cost of college textbooks, explained. Vox. Retrieved from

Stand up, speak out: The Practice and ethics of public speaking (2016). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Libraries.


Chapter 8

Caulfield, M. (2017). Web literacy for student fact-checkers….and other people who care about facts. Retrieved from

Howard, R. M. & Taggart, A. R. (2010). Research matters. New York: McGraw Hill. Retrieved from

Merriam-Webster. (2015). Plagiarism. Retrieved from

NCA. (2017). Credo for ethical communication. Retrieved from

Straumsheim, C. (2015, Aug. 5). Triaging textbook costs. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from

“What is plagiarism?” (2014). Retrieved from

Wineburg, S. & and McGrew, S. (2007). Lateral reading: Reading less and learning more when evaluating digital information. Stanford History Education Group Working Paper No. 2017-A1.


Chapter 9

Beighley, K. (1954). An experimental study of the effect of three speech variables on listener comprehension. Speech Monographs, 21(4), 248-253.

Bodiea, G. D., Powers, W. G., & Fitch-Hauser, M. (2006). Chunking, priming and active learning: Toward an innovative and blended approach to teaching communication-related skills. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(2), 119-135.

Daniels, T. D. & Whitman, R. F. (1981). The effects of message introduction, message structure, and verbal organizing ability upon learning of message information. Human Communication Research, 7(2), 147-160.

Sharp Jr., H. & McClung, T. (1966). Effects of organization on the speaker’s ethos. Speech Monographs, 33(2), 182-183.

Slagell, A. (2013). Why should you use a clear pattern of organization? Because it works. Communication Teacher, 27(4), 198-201.

Whitman, R. F. & Timmis, J. H. (1975). The influence of verbal organizational structure and verbal organizing skills on select measures of learning. Human Communication Research, 1, 293-301. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00277.

Yun, K. A., Costantini, C., & Billingsley, S. (2012). The effect of taking a public speaking class on one’s writing abilities. Communication Research Reports, 29(4), 285-291. doi:10.1080/08824096.2012.723270

Chapter 10

Aesop (1881). Aesop’s fables. New York, NY: Wm. L. Allison. Retrieved from

Baker, E. E. (1965). The immediate effects of perceived speaker disorganization on speaker credibility and audience attitude change in persuasive speaking. Western Speech, 29, 148–161.

Leung, R. (2004, September 5). Porn in the U.S.A.: Steve Kroft reports on a $10 billion industry. Retrieved from

McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J. (1999). Goodwill: A reexamination of the construct and its measurement. Communication Monographs, 66, 90–103.

Miller, E. (1946). Speech introductions and conclusions. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 32, 181–183.

Whitney, L. (2009, July 13). Don’t text while walking? Girl learns the hard way. CNET News Wireless. Retrieved from

Wrench, J. S., McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2008). Human communication in everyday life: Explanations and applications. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, pp. 33–34.

Chapter 11

Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology [Online version]. Retrieved from

Ehrensberger, R. (1945). An experimental study of the relative effectiveness of certain forms of emphasis in public speaking. Speech Monographs, 12, 94–111. doi: 10.1080/03637754509390108.

Kelly, P. (1994). I got flowers today. In C. J. Palmer & J. Palmer, Fire from within. Painted Post, NY: Creative Arts & Science Enterprises.

King, M. L. (1963, June 23). Speech in Detroit. Cited in Bartlett, J., & Kaplan, J. (Eds.), Bartlett’s familiar quotations (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., p. 760.

Miller, E. (1946). Speech introductions and conclusions. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 32, 181–183.

Solzhenitsyn, A. (1964). The first circle. New York: Harper & Row. Cited in Bartlett, J., & Kaplan, J. (Eds.), Bartlett’s familiar quotations (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., p. 746.

Chapter 12

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (n.d.). Aesthetic. American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved from

Caygill, H. (1982). Aesthetics and civil society: Theories of art and society, 1640-1790. University of Sussex.

Conquergood, D. (2005). The trope of the talking book and other figures of speech. Text and Performance Quarterly 20(4), 325-241. Doi: 10.1080/10462930009366308

Cupchik G C. Winston A C. (1996) Confluence and divergence in empirical aesthetics philosophy and mainstream psychology. In Handbook of perception & cognition: Cognitive ecology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Goldsbury, J. & Russell, W. (1844) The American Common-School Reader and Speaker. Boston: Tappan and Whittemore.

Marković, S. (2012). Components of aesthetic experience: aesthetic fascination, aesthetic appraisal, and aesthetic emotion. i-Perception3(1), 1–17. doi:10.1068/i0450aap

Merriam-Webster (n.d.). Aesthetic. Merriam Webster. Retrieved from

Munsell, J. (2011). Teaching elocution in the 21st-century communication Ccassroom. Communication Teacher, 25(1), 16-24.

Strati, A. (1996). Organizations viewed through the lens of aesthetics. Organization 3(2): 209-18.

Taylor, Steven S., Fisher, Dalmar, & Dufresne, R.L. (2002). The aesthetics of management storytelling: A key to organizational learning. Management Learning 33(3): 313-330.

Chapter 13

Brummett, Barry (2019). Techniques of Close Reading, 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Wimmer, L., Christmann, U., & Ihmels, E. (2016). Non-conventional figurative language as aesthetics of everyday communication. Metaphor and the Social World 6(2), 243-275. Doi: 10.1177/1350507602333002

Chapter 14

Cuddy, A. (2012). Your body language may shape who you are. TedTalk.

Lorde, Audre (1984). Age, race, class and sex: Women redefining difference. Sister Outsider. California: Crossing Press.

Lucas, S. A. (2015). The art of public speaking (12th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter 15

Frommer, F. (2012). How PowerPoint makes you stupid. Trans. by Holoch, G. New York, NY: The New Press.

Hasson, U., Hendler, T., Bashat, D.B., & Malach, R. (2001) Vase or face? A neural correlates of shape-selective grouping processes in the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol 13, No. 6, 744-753.

Lauer, D. A. & Pentak, S. (2000). Design basics (5th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.

Maier, D., Li, J., Tucker, P., Tufte, K., & Papadimos, V. (2005). Semantics of data streams and operators. Database Theory – Icdt 2005, Proceedings, 3363, 37-52.

Tufte, E. (2005) PowerPoint does rocket science–and better techniques for technical reports. Retrieved from

United States Department of Labor (1996). Presenting effective presentations with visual aids. Retrieved from

Chapter 17

Gladwell, M. (2019) “Tempest in a teacup.” Revisionist History. Episode 3. Retrieved from iTunes.

Chapter 18

Festinger, L. (1957). Theory of cognitive dissonance. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lucas, S. A. (2015). The art of public speaking (12th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Massey, R. (2004). Environmental justice: Income, race, and health. Global Development and Environmental Institute. Tufts University.

Monroe, A. (1951). Monroe’s principles of speech. Chicago, IL: Scott Foresman.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009, May 14). New study: Higher seat belt use could save many lives. NHTSA. Retrieved from Study:+Higher+Seat+Belt+Use+Could+Save+Many+Lives

Chapter 19

Anderson, S. R. (2012). How many languages are there in the world? The Linguistic Society of America. Retrieved from

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor (2006). College tuition and fees increase 63 percent since January 2006 on the Internet at. The Economics Daily. Retrieved from

“Definitions of fact, theory, and law in scientific work.” (2008, October 17). National Center for Science Education. Retrieved from

Fisher, W. R (1984). Narration as a human communication paradigm: The case of public moral argument. Communication Monographs. 51 (1): 1–22.

“Introduction to Open Educational Resources” (2019). University of Texas Arlington Libraries.

Jaggars, S. S., Rivera, M. D., & Briana A.(2019). College textbook affordability: Landscape, evidence, and policy directions. Midwestern Higher Education Compact.

O’Connor, D. J. (1958). The uses of Argument by Stephen Edelston Toulmin. Philosophy. 34 (130): 244–245. doi:10.1017/s0031819100037220

Popken, B. (2015). College Textbook Prices Have Risen 1,041 Percent Since 1977. NBC News.

“Report: Make Higher education affordable.” (2014). Public Interest Research Group.

Weinstein, B. D. (1993). What is an expert? Theoretical Medicine, 14, 57–93.

Wrench, J.S., Goding, A., Johnson, D.I., & Attias, B. A. (2011). Stand up, speak out: The practice and ethics of public speaking. 1st edition.

Chapter 21

Gilbert, B. (2018). YouTube now has over 1.8 billion users every month, within spitting distance of Facebook’s 2 billion. Business Insider.

Lind, S. (2012). Teaching digital oratory: Public speaking 2.0. Communication Teacher, 26(3), 163-169.


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